Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (A.S.) in Iraq

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Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (A.S.)


The skillful policy of the Abbasids destroyed the authority of banu Marwan (the Sons of Marwan), prevented al- Hasan and al- Husayn from gaining victory and stopped the idea of the Imamate from spreading among men for al- Hasan and al- Husayn. But they (ban Marwan) made grave fault when they practiced terrorist policies against al- Sadiq, peace be on him. For example, they summoned him to come to Iraq several times. For this reason, they served the Imamate and revealed the importance of ahl al- Bayt very much. 


The Iraqis have loved ahl al- Bayt since the beginning of Islam, especially when Iraq became the capital of their authority for a period of time. Besides, some great figures of ahl al- Bayt have been buried there. Also, in Iraq, they faced important events- like the event of al- Taf (the Battle of Karbala) and the event (killing) of Zayd, which men and history will not forget as long as there is a human being on the surface of the earth and as long as there is written history. 

Seeing and witnessing has stronger influence than hearing. Indeed, if beauty attracts good souls and gentle feeling, then that happens through the eyes, not through the ears. Yes, hearing a thing may have an influence, because the ear sometimes loves before the eye. But hearing is not like seeing even though it reaches the level that charms the hearts and the feelings. 

Also the oppressed may move the pity of the heart and the mercy of the self, especially when the oppressed person is among the outstanding men and the greatest scholars. 

So, when the love for al- Sadiq, peace be on him, dominated the hearts through hearing, and men believed in his Imamate through evidence, then seeing him, witnessing his proofs, and hearing his eloquence had a greater influence. Thus the coming of al- Sadiq to Iraq, the country of love for the Prophet's family, seeing his qualities and his outstanding merits, and hearing his saying and proofs had a strong influence on men as well as what they heard about him. For this reason the hearts of men inclined toward him. People not only took traditions from him when they went to perform the hajj, but also they took them from him when he came to Iraq several times. 

Moreover, al- Sadiq was an oppressed person. All people or most of them, knew that he was forced to come to Iraq. Also they knew that the Abbasids mistreated him and prevented him from spreading his sciences and knowledge. 

The Shi'a knew the importance and knowledge of al- Sadiq more when he came to Iraq. That was because taqiya (protection) and the hostile authority prevented people from propagating his outstanding merits. And al- Sadiq, peace be on him, was as 'Amru b. al- Muqdam said: "When I looked at him (al- Sadiq), I knew that he was among the descendants of the Prophets." And as b. Talha said in his book 'Matalib Al- Sa'ul'." Looking at him reminds (the person) to refrain from the life in this world, following his behavior leads to Paradise, the light of his features bears witness that he is among the progeny of the Prophet, and his pure acts show that he is among the owners of the mission." 

Husham b. al- Hakam, who belonged to Jahm, changed his doctrine and believed in the Imamate as a result of his discussion with al- Sadiq and his looking at him. That looking made him full of respect for al- Sadiq. So, he felt that such importance does not happen but for the prophets and their trustees of authority. So, among the effects of the coming of al- Sadiq to Iraq was that he guided Husham, who played an important role in serving the religion and ahl al- Bayt.(145) 

Among the effects of the coming of al- Sadiq to Iraq was that he built the grave of the Commander of the Faithful (Amir al- Mu'minin- Imam 'Ali). And he showed it to the prominent figures of the Shi'a, for most of them did not know exactly where the grave was except that It was at Kufa in Najaf because his sons did their best to hide it to prevent the enemies of Imam 'Ali from demolishing it. So, the Shi'a began visiting it. At every visit, al- Sadiq, peace be on him, took some of his near companions with him to the grave. Also he ordered Safwan b. Mahran al- Jammal to build the grave. 

In his book 'Al- Tahdhib', the Shaykh of the Shi'te sect Mohammed b. al- Hasan al- Tusy has mentioned many visitations of al- Sadiq, peace be on him. 

Such visitations have been mentioned by Shaykh al- Kulainy, may his grave be fragrant, in his book 'al- Kafi', Sayyid b. Tawus in his book ' Farhat Al- Ghari', Shaykh al- Hur al- 'amili in his book Wasa'il Al- Shi'a, al- Majlisi in his book 'Al- Bihar', and the like. 

The following are some of the visitations of al- Sadiq and his evidence for that. Shaykh Abu Ja'far al- Tusy said: "Surely, al- Sadiq, peace be on him, visited the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin, peace be on him, several times. Among them was when al- Saffah summoned him to come to al-Hira." And some of them have been reported by Abd Allah b. Talah al-Hindy (146), who said: "I came to Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, and he said: 'So, we went with him until we arrived at al- Ghary. He (al- Sadiq) came to a place (the grave) and said his prayers at it."' 

Also Shaykh Abu Ja'far al- Tusi has mentioned the coming of al- Sadiq from al- Hira for the second time. Yunus b. Zabyan(147) was with him. He (al-Sadiq) prayed at the grave, and told Yunus that the grave was for Amir al-Mu'minin while Yunus had not known where the grave was but that it was in the desert. 

Al- Kulainy, may his grave be fragrant, reported on the authority of Zayd b. 'Amru b. Talha(148), who said: "When he arrived at al- Hira, Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, said: "Do you not want what I have promised you?' I said: 'Yes.' He meant the going to the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin, peace be on him.' He (Zayd) said: So, he (al- Sadiq) mounted (his camel), Isma'il mounted, and I mounted with them. When he arrived at al- Thawiya near the white hills between al- Hira and Najaf, he dismounted Isma'il dismounted, and I dismounted with them. So he (al- Sadiq), Isma'il, and I performed our prayers."' 

Also al- Kuliny reported on the authority of Aban b. Taghlub,(149) who said: "I was with Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, when he passed by Kufa. So, he (al- Sadiq) dismounted (his camel) and performed two ruk'as, then he advanced for a little (distance) and performed two ruk'as, then he walked for a little (distance) and performed two ruk'as. Then he told Aban that the first two ruk'as were at the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin, peace be on him, the second (two ruk'as) were at the place of the head of al- Husayn, peace be on him, and the third (two ruk'as) were at the abode of al- Qa'm (Imam al- Mahdy)." 

Shaykh al- Hur mentioned that al- Sadiq, peace be on him, visited the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin several times. He has mentioned such a report on the authority of al- Saduq, may Allah have mercy upon him, on the authority of Safwan b. Mahran al- Jammal, who said: "Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, made way, and I was with him, through Qadisiya (a province in Iraq) till he arrived in Najaf. Then he went on making way till he arrived at al- Ghary and stopped at it. Then he came to the grave and began saying assalamu' ala from Adam, and I was saying with him, to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Then he sank to the grave. He greeted it and his crying became loud. So, I said: 'Son of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, Whose grave is this?" He said: "The grave of my grandfather 'Ali b. Abu Talib." 

In addition to what has been mentioned above, al- Majlisy has mentioned other visitations. And he has mentioned the visitation reported by Safwan in another report. In this visitation, al- Sadiq smelt the earth of (the grave) of Amir Al- Mu'minin. So, he sobbed. I thought that he left the life in this world. When he became conscious, he said: 'By Allah, here is the grave of Amir Al- Mu'minin.' Then he drew a line. So, I said: 'What has prevented the righteous members of the House from revealing his grave.?' He said: "Because they were afraid that banu Marwan and the Kharijites might destroy it." 

He (al- Majlisy) reported on the authority of 'Amr b. Yazid(150) that he ('Amr b. Yazid) came to Abd Allah b. Sanan. They went together to the house of Hafs al- Kanasy. He went with them. Then they arrived at a grave at al- Ghary. So, he (Hafs) said to them: "Dismount. This is the grave of Amir Al- Mu'minin." Abd Allah said to him: "From where have you known this?" He said: "I came to it with Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, when he came to al- Hira, and told me that it was his grave." 

He (al- Majlisy) reported from Yunus b. Zabyan that he was with al-Sadiq, peace be on him, at al- Hira when he came to Abu Ja'far at a clear moony night till he said: "So, he (al- Sadiq) mounted (his camel) and I mounted with him. And he made way till we arrived at the red hills." He (Yunus) said: "Then he (al- Sadiq) approached the hill and said his prayers at it. Then he leaned against it and wept till he said: It is the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin, peace be on him." Maybe, this report is the first report of Yunus. 

He (al- Majlisy) reported on the authority of Abu al- Faraj al- Sindy,(151) that he came from al- Hira with al- Sadiq, peace be on him, to al- Ghary and visited the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin, peace be on him. 

He (al- Majlisy) reported a similar report on the authority of Abd Allah b. 'Ubayd b. Zayd and mentioned that Abd Allah called to prayer and established the regular prayer and prayed with al- Sadiq, peace be on him. 

Apparently, this visitation took place during the time of al- Saffah because he summoned Abd Allah b. al- Hasan as he summoned al- Sadiq, peace be on him.(152) 

He (al- Majlisy) also reported on the authority of Abu al- 'Ala' al- Ta'y,(153) a long tradition in which he has mentioned the coming of al- Sadiq to al-Hira, spreading the news in Kufa, his sitting to wait for him, his question about the grave of Amir al- Mu'minin, peace be on him, and the following words of al- Sadiq: "Yes, Shaykh, by Allah, it is true." He (al- Majlisy) reported on the authority of Safwan that he (Safwan) came to the grave after al- Sadiq, peace be on him, had told him about it and prayed at it for twenty years.

In his book 'Farhat Al- Ghary', the great Sayyid Abd Al-karim b. Tawus has reported the above- mentioned visitations and many others. It is not our purpose to tell you about every visitation which has been reported from him (al- Sadiq). But our purpose is to tell you about that foolish policy which the Abbasids adopted against Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, and the effects of his frequent coming to Iraq. In other words, he was able to reveal the importance of ahl al Bayt. 

Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, brought one or another of his companions with him in each visitation to show them the grave. Then he brought other than them in the following visitation to make many people know and visit the grave. So, many of his companions reported these visitations. Some of them were Safwan al- Jammal, Mohammed b. Muslim al- Thaqafy, Abu Basir, Abd Allah b. 'Ubayd b. Zayd, Abu al- Faraj al- Sindy, Aban b. Taghlub, Mubarak al- Khabbazz,(154) Mohammed b. Ma'ruf al- Hilaly,(155) Abu al- 'Ala al- Ta'y, al- Ma'alla b. Khanis, Zayd b. Talha, 'Amr b. Zayd, Yazid b. 'Amru, Abd Allah b. Talha al- Hindy, Yunus b. Zabyan, and the like. 

Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, gave Safwan al- Jammal some dirhams to rebuild the grave because a flood had swept it away. From here you know that the grave was apparent even though ahl al Bayt and their companions visited it secretly to keep it hidden from the Kharijites and banu Marwan. 

For this reason, Abu al- 'Ala' asked al- Sadiq whether the grave was for Amir Al- Mu'minin or not. When al- Sadiq sank to the grave, Safwan asked him: "Whose grave is this?" This means that the grave was apparent for them. People knew the grave during the time of al- Sadiq, peace be on him, because they visited it frequently. So, they did not ask al-Sadiq about the place and the owner of the grave as Mohammed b. Muslim, Safwan, Yunus b. Zabyan, and the like did. Rather, they asked him about the manners necessary to visit it. 

Among the acts of al- Sadiq, peace be on him, in Iraq is his mihrab (prayer niche). It is to the east of the mosque near Surah near the grave of Muslim, peace be on him. It is apparent and known in the mosque because there is no mihrab near it. There are certain prayers and supplication for it. Al- Sadiq's mihrab was in the mosque of Suhayl (al- Sahla) and it is in the middle of the mosque. And there are certain prayers and supplication for it. The reason for that is clear one day, al- Sadiq, peace be on him, was in Kufa. Bashshar al-. Mikary(156) came to him. He told him that there was a police man taking a woman to prison and hitting her head while the woman was shouting loudly: "I am calling for the help of Allah and his Apostle, but no one is helping her." Al- Sadiq asked Bashshar"' Why is he taking her to prison and hitting her?" Bashshar answered: "I heard people saying: She stumbled and said: May Allah curse those who oppressed you, Fatima." So, the police man behaved in such a manner. Al- Sadiq stopped eating- some dates called Tabarzad (i.e. very good, sweet dates) that were before him. He continued weeping till his handkerchief, his beard, and his chest became wet due to the tears. Immediately, al- Sadiq and Bashshar went to al- Sahla mosque. There he performed two ruk'as and recited a supplication.(157) 

When he had gone out of the mosque, a man came and told him that the woman had been released. So, he (al-Sadiq) became happy and sent the woman a gift while she had refused to take anything from the governor who gave her two hundred dirham, though she was in need of them.(158) Men always go to the mosque and the mihrab, they recite that supplication to seek their needs. 

There is a mihrab on the bank of al- Husayniya river in Karbala. The mihrab is attributed to al- Sadiq. Maybe, he prayed in this place on the day when he visited al- Husayn, peace be on him. In his long tradition which we have mentioned earlier, al- Husayn b. Abu Al- 'Ala' al- Ta'y has mentioned the visitations of al- Sadiq to Imam Husayn, peace be on him. In his book 'Farhat al- Ghary', b. Tawus has mentioned his visitations. In his book 'Mazar Al- Bihar', al- Majlisy has mentioned them. Also they have been mentioned in this tradition: "May my father and mother be ransom for is this. grave from which you have come for you, is this grave al-Husayn's?" He (al- Sadiq) said: "Yes, by Allah, Shaykh, it is true." 

To the north of the western bridge, today known as the ancient bridge, over the river Tigris, at the western side of Baghdad, there is a place which the people there call the School of Imam Sadiq (Madrasat al- Imam al-Sadiq). Today, there is no apparent monument of it. Maybe, he (al- Sadiq) availed people in it when he came to Baghdad during the time of al-Mansur. 

In his book, 'Tarikh', al- Khatib has not mentioned al- Sadiq, peace be on him, with those who came to Baghdad while he has mentioned his son al- Kazim and his grandson al- Jawad, peace be on them. 

What we have mentioned above is enough evidence for the effects of al-Sadiq in Iraq when al- Saffah and al- Mansur sent for him. So, he increased the importance of ahl al Bayt. And the stick glows with burning.


References: 

145 I have written a research about Husham b. al- Hakam. I tried as far as possible to collect his reports and writings. 

146 An Arab man from Kufa. He reported from al- Sadiq. A group of the reliable persons- such is 'Ali b. Ism'il, al- Maythamy, Mohammed b. Sanan, and b. Mahbub reported from him. 

147 Al- Kufi. He was among those who reported from al- Sadiq, peace be on him. Some reporters praised him and some dispraised him. But many reliable persons reported from him. Some of them adopted consensus. 

148 Al- Cufi. We do not know anything about him but this report. He was a reliable person because al- Kulainy reported from him. 

149 We will mention him with the reliable companions of al- Sadiq, peace be on him. 

150 The biographers have mentioned that there were two persons called 'Amr b. Yazid: One of them was Bayya' al- Sabiry and the other was al- Sadiq.

(1) They both reported from al- Sadiq. Maybe, they were both reliable persons.

(2) Will mention him with the famous reliable figures.

(3) He was the son of 'Abdrbba. He was regarded as among the companions of al-Sadiq. The biographers denoted that he was Imami. 

151 His name was 'Isa. He is regarded as among the companions of al- Sadiq and his reporters. 

152 The biographers has not mentioned him in this name. 

153 I am not acquainted with his biography. 

154 Only one report has been mentioned on his authority. 

155 He has mentioned some reports from al- Sadiq, peace be on him. 

156 I am not acquainted with his biography. 

157 We have mentioned this supplication with what we have collected of his supplications. 

158 Bihar Al- Anwar: 100/440/21. Mazar Al- Bihar: 22/103. 

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