The question some times is asked as to why should a Muslim pray only in Arabic language and not his mother tongue.
It may first seem logical that every Muslim should pray through his own mother language, so that he may understand what he say; but a little more thinking and study, we shall find that there are strong arguments in favour of only one common language and that also Arabic.Read more... Why Pray in Arabic?
Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 September 2010 23:11 Written by H110 Wednesday, 22 September 2010 23:03
01. The Farewell Pilgrimage
02. Revelation of Verse 5:67
03. The Speech
04. Revelation of Verse 5:3
05. Oath of Allegance
06. The Number of People in Ghadir Khum
07. Revelation of Verse 70:1-3
08. The events that Imam Ali (AS) reminded the Tradition
09. A more detailed speech of Prophet at the Pond of Khum
10. The Meaning Wali, Mawla, and Wilayah
11. Ali vs. truth (right path)
12. The chains (asnad) of narrations of Ghadir Khum
13. Sunni Traditionists who mentioned the Tradition of Ghadir Khum
14. Sunni Commentators of Quran who mentioned Ghadir Khum
15. Sunni Historians who mentioned the Tradition of Ghadir Khum
The Farewell Pilgrimage
Ten years after the migration, the Messenger of Allah orderedÂ his close
followers to call all the people in different places to join him in his
last pilgrimage. On this pilgrimage he taught them how to perform the
pilgrimage in a correct and unified form.
This was the first time that the Muslims with this magnitude gathered in one
place in the presence of their leader, the Messenger of Allah. On his way
to Mecca, more than seventy thousand people followed Prophet (PBUH&HF).
On the fourth day of Dhul-Hajjah more than one hundred thousand Muslims
had entered Mecca.
Revelation of Verse 5:67
On the 18th of Dhul-Hajjah, after completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-
Widaa), Prophet was leaving Mecca toward Medina, when he and the crowd of
people reached to a place called Ghadir Khum (which is close to today's
Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces should say
Good bye to each other and take different routes for their home. In this
place, the following verse was revealed:
"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and
if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and
Allah will protect you from the people ..." (Quran 5:67).
Some of Sunni references confirming that the revelation of the above verse
of Quran was right before the speech of Prophet in Ghadir Khum:
(1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, under commentary of verse 5:67,
v12, pp 49-50, narrated on the authorities of Ibn Abbas, al-Bara Ibn
Azib, and Muhammad Ibn Ali.
(2) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, p50, narrated on the authorities of
Atiyyah and Abu Sa'id al Khudri.
(3) Nuzul al-Quran, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym narrated on the authorities
Abu Sa'id Khudri and Abu Rafi.
(4) al-Fusool al Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p24
(5) Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz al-Suyuti, under commentary of verse 5:67
(6) Fathul Qadir, by al-Shawkani, under commentary of verse 5:67
(7) Fathul Bayan, by Hasan Khan, under commentary of verse 5:67
(8) Shaykh Muhi al-Din al-Nawawi, under commentary of verse 5:67
(9) al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p301
(10) Umdatul Qari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by al-Ayni
(11) Tafsir al-Nisaboori, v6, p194
(12) and many more such as Ibn Mardawayh, etc...
The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet (PBUH&HF)
was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but
Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from
Upon receiving the verse, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) stopped on that place (the
pond of Khum) which was extremely hot. Then he sent for all people who have
been ahead in the way, to come back and waited until all pilgrims who fell
behind, arrived and gathered. He ordered Salman (RA) to use rocks and camel
toolings to make a pulpit (minbar) so he could make his announcement. It
was around noon time on the first of the Fall, and due to the extreme heat
in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their feet and
legs, and were sitting around the pulpit, on the hot rocks.
On this day the Messenger of Allah spent approximately five hours in this
place; three hours of which he was on the pulpit. He recited nearly one
hundred verses from The Glorious Quran, and for seventy three times
reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he gave them a
long speech. The following is a part of his speech which has been widely
narrated by the Sunni traditionists:
The Messenger of Allah declared: "It seems the time has approached when I
shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am
leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere both of them,
you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my
progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt. The two shall never separate from each
other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."
Then the Messenger of Allah continued: "Do I not have more right over
the believers than what they have over themselves?" People cried and
answered: "Yes, O' Messenger of God." Then Prophet (PBUH) held up the
hand of Ali and said: "Whoever I am his leader (Mawla), Ali is his
leader (Mawla). O' God, love those who love him, and be hostile to
those who are hostile to him."
Some of the Sunni references:
(1) Sahih Tirmidhi, v2, p298, v5, p63
(2) Sunan Ibn Maja, v1, pp 12,43
(3) Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 4,21
(4) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p129, v3, pp 109-110,116,371
(5) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,118,119,152,330, v4, pp 281,368,370,
372,378, v5, pp 35,347,358,361,366,419 (from 40 chains of narrators)
(6) Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, pp 563,572
(7) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p103 (from several transmitters)
(8) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
(9) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19
(10) Tarikh al-Khulafa, by al-Suyuti, pp 169,173
(11) al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213, v5, p208
(12) Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn Athir, v4, p114
(13) Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, pp 307-308
(14) Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part 3, p144
(15) Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p26
(16) al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v2, p509; v1, part1, p319,
v2, part1, p57, v3, part1, p29, v4, part 1, pp 14,16,143
(17) Tabarani, who narrated from companions such as Ibn Umar, Malik Ibn
al-Hawirath, Habashi Ibn Junadah, Jari, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas,
Anas Ibn Malik, Ibn Abbas, Amarah,Buraydah,...
(18) Tarikh, by al-Khatib Baghdadi, v8, p290
(19) Hilyatul Awliya', by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym, v4, p23, v5, pp26-27
(20) al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, Chapter of word "ayn" (Ali), v2, p462
(21) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, pp 154,397
(22) al-Mirqat, v5, p568
(23) al-Riyad al-Nadirah, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, v2, p172
(24) Dhaka'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p68
(25) Faydh al-Qadir, by al-Manawi, v6, p217
(26) Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p297
... And hundreds more. Please see part 3 for more classified references
(traditionists, historians, and commentators).
The above was just a part of speech of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). ForÂ more
detailed speech of the Prophet, please see the end of this part.
"Today I have perfected your religion and completed my bounty upon
you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion." (Quran 5:3)
Some of Sunni references which mentioned the revelation of the above
verse of Quran in Ghadir Khum after the speech of the Prophet:
(1) al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19
(2) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra
(3) Manaqaib, by Ibn Maghazali, p19
(4) History of Damascus, Ibn Asakir, v2, p75
(5) al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p13
(6) Manaqib, by Khawarazmi al-Hanfi, p80
(7) al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213
(8) Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p115
(9) Nuzul al-Quran, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym narrated on the authority
Abu Sa'id Khudri.
... and more.
The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up the matter of
leadership after Prophet was not completed, and the completion of religion was
due to announcement of Prophet's immediate successor.
Oath of Allegiance
After his speech, the Messenger of Allah asked everybody to give the oath
of allegiance to Ali (AS) and congratulate him. Among those who gave him
the oath were Umar, Abu Bakr, and Uthman. It is narrated that Umar and
Abu Bakr said:
"Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the leader (Mawla) of all
believing men and women."
(1) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p281
(2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
(3) Mishkat al-Masabih, by al-Khatib al-Tabrizi, p557
(4) Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part3, p144
(5) Kitabul Wilayah, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari
(6) al-Musannaf, by Ibn Abi Shaybah
(7) al-Musnad, by Abu Ya'ala
(8) Hadith al-Wilayah, by Ahmad Ibn `Uqdah
(9) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra
... and more.
The Number of People in Ghadir Khum
It was Allah's will that an increased popularity was associated with this
tradition via the tongs of narrators and over the times. So that there is a
standing proof for the guiding Imam (peace be upon him). Allah ordered His
Prophet (PBUH&HF) to notify people at a time of crowded populous so that
all become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded a hundred
Narrated by Zaid Ibn Arqam: Abu al-Tufail said: "I heard it from
the Messenger of Allah, and there was no one (there) unless he
saw him with his eyes and heard him with his ears."
(1) al-Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, p21;
(2) al-Dhahabi said it is sahih (authentic), as said in:
(3) History of Ibn Kathir, v5, p208
It is also narrated that:
"The Messenger of Allah called at the height of his voice."
Sunni reference: Manaqib al-Khawarizmi, by al-Khawarizmi, p94
"There were with the Messenger (PBUH) from the companions, Arabs,
residents around Mecca and Medina one hundred and twenty thousand
(120,000) and they were those who were present in the Farewell
Pilgrimage and heard this speech."
Sunni reference: Manaqib, by Ibn al-Jawzi
Revelation of Verse 70:1-3
Some Sunni commentators further claimed that the first three verse of the
chapter of al-Ma'arij (70:1-3) was revealed when a dispute arose after
Prophet reached Medina. It is recorded that:
On the day of Ghadir the Messenger of Allah summoned the people toward
Ali and said: "Ali is the MAWLA of whom I am MAWLA." The news spread
quickly all over urban and rural areas. When Harith Ibn Nu'man al-
Fahri (or Nadhr Ibn Harith according to another tradition) came to
know of it, he rode his camel and came to Medina and went to the
Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) and said to him: "You commanded us to
testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are the
Messenger of Allah. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the
prayers five times a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe
fasts during the month of Ramadhan and we obeyed. Then you commanded
us to offer pilgrimage to Mecca and we obeyed. But you are not
satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin by your hand and
imposed him upon us as our master by saying `Ali is the MAWLA of whom
I am MAWLA.' Is this imposition from Allah or from You?" The Prophet
(PBUH&HF) said : "By Allah who is the only deity! This is from Allah,
the Mighty and the Glorious."
On hearing this Harith turned back and proceeded towards his she-camel
saying: "O Allah! If what Muhammad said is correct then fling on us a
stone from the sky and subject us to severe pain and torture."
He had not reached his she-camel when Allah, who is above all defects
flung at him a stone which struck him on his head, penetrated his body
and passed out through his lower body and left him dead. It was on
this occasion that Allah, the exalted, caused to descend the following
"A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the
disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the Lord of
the Ascent." (70:1-3)
(1) Tafsir al-Tha'labi, by Is'haq al-Tha'labi, commentary of verse 70:1-3
from two chain of narrators.
(2) Noor al-Absar, by Shablanji, p4
(3) al-Fusool al-Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p25
(4) al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v2, p214
(5) Arjah al-Matalib
(6) Nazhat al-Mujalis from al-Qurtubi
The events that Imam Ali (AS) reminded the Tradition
Imam Ali (AS), in person, reminded others who witnessed the event of Ghadir
and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah; these are some of the events:
- On the day of Shura (Election Day for Uthman)
- During the days of Uthman's rule
- The Day of Rahbah (year 35) where 24 companions stood up and swore that
they attended and heard the tradition of the Prophet (PBUH) first hand,
twelve of whom were the warriors of Badr.
- The Day of Jamal (the War of Camel, year 36) where he reminded Talha.
- The Day of the Riders where 9 witnesses testified.
About the Battle of Camel, al-Hakim and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and others
We were in the camp of Ali on the day of Battle of Camel, where Ali
sent for Talha to talk to him (before the beginning of war). Talha
came forward, and Ali told him: I adjure you by Allah! Didn't you hear
the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) when he said: `Whoever I am his
MAWLA, this Ali is his MAWLA. O God, love whoever loves him, and be
hostile to whoever is hostile to him'?" Talha replied: "Yes." Ali
said: "Then why do you want to fight me?"
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 169,371
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of Ilyas al-Dhabbi
- Muruj al-Dhahab, by al-Mas'udi, v4, p321
- Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p107
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded in his Musnad that:
Abu Tufayl narrated that He (Ali) gathered the people in the plain of
Rahbah (on year 35 AH) and adjured in the name of Allah every Muslim
male present there who had heard the proclamation of al-Ghadir from
the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) to stand up and testify what they had
heard from the Messenger on the Day of Ghadir. Thereupon thirty (30)
men stood up and gave evidence that the Prophet grasped Ali's hand and
said to the audience: "He (Ali) has superior authority over those who
believe me to have superiority over their lives. O Allah! Love him who
loves him and hate him who hates him." Abu Tufayl says that it was in
a state of great mental agitation that he left the plain of Rahbah,
for the Muslim masses had not complied with the tradition. He
therefore called on Zaid Ibn Arqam and told him what he heard from
Ali. Zaid told him not to entertain any doubt about it for he himself
had heard the Messenger of Allah uttering those words.
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p370
Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abu Laylah said: I witnessed Ali administering an
oath to the people in the plain of Rahbah. Ali said: "I adjure those
of you in the name of Allah who heard the Messenger of Allah on the
day of Ghadir saying `Ali is the Mawla of whom I am Mawla' to stand
up and to testify. He who was not an eyewitness doesn't need to stand
up." Thereupon twelve (12) such companions who had participated in
the Battle of Badr stood up. The occasion is still fresh in my memory.
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p119, see also v5, p366
- Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 21,103, narrated similar to above on the
authority of three others: Umayah Ibn Sa'd, Zaid Ibn yathigh, and
Sa'id Ibn Wahab.
It is also recorded that:
When Ali said to Anas: "Why don't you stand up and testify what you
heard from the Messenger of Allah on the day of Ghadir?" He answered,
"O Amir al-Mumineen! I have grown old and do not remember." Thereupon
Ali said: "May Allah mark you with a white spot (of leprosy; Alphosis)
unconcealable with your turban, if you are intentionally withholding
the truth." And before Anas got up from his place he bore a large
white spot on his face, Thereafter Anas used to say, "I am under the
curse of the righteous servant of Allah."
(1) al-Ma'arif, by Ibn Qutaybah, p14, in the account of Anas among disabled
(2) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p199, where he testifies to the above
anecdote, as he says : "All stood up except three persons who came
under the curse of Ali."
(3) Hilyatul Awliya', by Abu Nu'aym, v5, p27
"Praise belongs to Allah. We ask Him for help, and we believe in Him,
and in Him we trust. We seek refuge to Him from the evil of our souls
and the sins of our deeds. Verily there is no guide for the one whom
Allah leaves in stray, and there is none who leads astray the one whom
Allah has guided."
"O People! Know that Gabriel came down to me several times bringing me
an order from the Lord, the Merciful, that I should stop at this place
and inform you. Behold! It is as if the time approached when I shall
be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call."
"O Folk! Don't you witness that there is no deity but Allah, Muhammad
is His servant and His Apostle, Paradise is truth, Hell is truth,
death is truth, resurrection is truth, and that the Hour shall
certainly arrive, and Allah shall raise people from the graves?"
People replied: "Yes, we believe in them."
He continued: "O People! Do you hear my voice (clearly)?" They said:
"Yes". The Prophet said: "Behold! I am leaving among you two precious
and weighty Symbols that if you adhere to both of them, you shall
never go astray after me. Each of these two surpasses the other in its
A person asked: "O Messenger of Allah, what are those two precious
The Prophet replied: "One of them is the Book of Allah and the other
one is my select progeny (Itrat), that is family (Ahlul-Bayt). Beware
of how you behave them when I am gone from amongst you, for Allah, the
Merciful, has informed me that these two (i.e., Quran and Ahlul-Bayt)
shall never separate from each other until they reach me in Heaven at
the Pool (of al-Kawthar). I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my
Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt.
Once more! I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt."
"Behold! I am your predecessor at the Pool (of Paradise) and I shall
be a witness against you. Thus be careful how you treat these two
precious things after me. Do not precede these two for you will
perish, and do not stay away from them for you will perish."
"O People! Don't you know that I have more authority upon you than
yourself?" People cried and said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." Then
prophet repeated: "O Folk! Do I not have more right over the believers
than what they have over themselves?" People said again "Yes, O
Messenger of Allah." Then Prophet said: "O People! Surely God is my
Master, and I am the master of all believers." Then he grasped the
hand of Ali and raised it and said:
"WHOEVER I AM HIS MASTER, ALI IS HIS MASTER (repeating three times).
O' God! Love those who love him. Be hostile to those who are hostile to
him. Help those who help him. Forsake those who forsake him. And keep
the truth with him wherever he turns (i.e., make him the axis of the
"Ali, the son of Abu Talib, is my brother, my executor (Wasi), and my
successor (Caliph), and the leader (Imam) after me. His position to me
is the same as the position of Haroon (Aaron) to Moses, except that
there shall be no prophet after me. He is your master after Allah and
"O Folk! Verily Allah has appointed him to be your Imam and ruler.
Obedience of him is obligatory for all Immigrants (Muhajirin) and
Helpers (Ansar) and those who follow them in virtue, and on the
dwellers of the cities and the nomads, the Arabs and the non-Arabs,
the freeman and the slave, the young and the old, the great and the
small, the white and the black."
"His commands should be obeyed, and his word is binding and his order
is obligatory on everyone who believes in one God. Cursed is the man
who disobeys him, and blessed is the one who follows him, and he who
believes in him is a true believer. His WILAYAH (belief in his
mastery) has been made obligatory by Allah, the Powerful, the
O Folk! Study the Quran. Reflect on its clear verses and do not
presume the meaning of the ambiguous verses. For, by Allah, nobody can
properly explain them to you its warnings and its meanings except me
and this man (i.e., Ali) whose hand I am lifting up in front of
"O People! This is the last time that I shall stand in this assembly.
Therefore listen to me and obey and submit to the command of Lord.
Verily Allah, He is your Lord and God. After Him, His prophet,
Muhammad who is addressing you, is your master. Then after me, this
Ali is your master and your leader (Imam) according to Allah's
command. Then after him leadership will continue through some selected
individuals in my descendants till the day you meet Allah and His
"Behold! Certainly you shall meet your Lord and He will ask you about
your deeds. Beware! Do not become infidels after me by striking the
necks of one another. Lo! It is incumbent upon those who are present
to inform what I said to those who are absent for perhaps the informed
one might comprehend it (understand it) better than some of the
present audience. Behold! Haven't I conveyed the Message of Allah to
you? Behold! Haven't I conveyed the Message of Allah to you?" People
replied: "Yes." The Prophet said: "O God! Bear witness."
- A'alam al-Wara, pp 132-133
- Tadhkirat al-Khawas al-Ummah, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 28-33
- al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p273
The Meaning Wali, Mawla, and Wilayah
No Muslim scholar could ever cast any doubt in the documentation of the
tradition of Ghadir Khum, for it has been narrated with as much as 150
authentic chains of transmitters by the Sunnis alone. (Please see Part III
for the evidences in this regard). A Mutawatir report is a report which has
been narrated unbrokenly and independently by so many people so that no
doubt can be entertained about their authenticity. Even the students of Ibn
Taymiyyah such as al-Dhahabi and Ibn Kathir who have proven their enmity
toward the Shia, emphasized that the tradition of Ghadir Khum is Mutawatir
and Sahih (authentic) (See al-Bidayah wan Nihayah). However some people did
try to interpret the tradition in a different way. They particularly tried
to translate the words WALI (master/guardian), MAWLA (master/leader), and
WILAYAH (mastery/leadership/guardianship) as friend and friendship.
Dictionaries give a minimum of 20 meanings for the Arabic word WALI,
depending on context, most have to do with the position of leadership and
guardianship. Only in one instance it could mean a friend.
- Elias' Modern Dictionary, by Elias A. Elias, Arabic-English, p815-816,
- al-Munjid fi al-Lughah, v1.
Some suggested that what really the Prophet (PBUH&HF) wanted to say was:
"Whoever I am his friend, Ali is his friend."
There was no doubt that Imam Ali (AS) had a very high status in comparison
with all other people. He was the first male who embraced Islam (Sahih
Tirmidhi, v5, p642; Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal v4, p317; Mustadrak by al-
Hakim, v3, pp 111,136; Sirah Ibn Hisham, p345; Tabaqat by Ibn Sa'd, v3,
p71,72; al-Istiab by Ibn Abd al-Bar, v3, p30). He received the title of
the "brother" of Prophet (Sahih Tirmidhi v5, p363; Sirah Ibn Hisham, p504;
Tahdhib v4, p251). He was the one for whom Prophet said: "Loving Ali is
believing, hating Ali is hypocrisy." (Sahih Muslim, v1, p48; Sahih
Tirmidhi, v5, p643; Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p142; Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal v1,
pp 84,95,128). Thus it does not seem to be logical for the Prophet
(PBUH&HF) to keep more than a hundred thousand people in such unbeatable
heat, and keep them waiting in such condition until those who have left
behind reach the place, and then all to tell them was that "Ali is the
friend of believers!"
Moreover how can we justify the revelation of Verse 5:67 which was revealed
before the speech of the Prophet in which Allah said:
"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and
if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and
Allah will protect you from the people ..." (Quran 5:67).
Is it logical to say that Allah warned his Prophet that if he does not
convey the message of "friendship of Ali", he has spoiled all he has done?!
Also what danger can be imagined for Prophet if he states "Ali is the
friend of believers"? Then what danger from the side of people is the above
verse referring to?
Furthermore, how can the phrase "Ali is the friend of believers" complete
the religion? Is the verse of completeness of religion (5:3) which was
revealed after the speech of Prophet suggesting that without saying "Ali is
the friend of believers" the religion is not complete?
Also, as we quoted in the first part, Umar and Abu Bakr congratulated Ali
by saying: "Congratulations O son of Abu Talib! Today you became the MAWLA
of all believing men and women." If, here, the word MAWLA means friend
then why the congratulations? Was Ali the enemy of all believers before
that time, so that Umar said that this day you BECAME the friend of them?!
In fact, every WALI is a friend, but the reverse is not always true. This
is why the Arabs use "Wali al-Amr" for the rulers, meaning the master of
the affairs. Thus, logically speaking, the word MAWLA cannot be
interpreted as friend, and we should rather use its other more-frequently-
used meanings which are Leader and Guardian.
Perhaps one would ask why Prophet didn't use other words to further explain
his intention. In fact, people asked him the same question, and the
following Sunni documentations are the answers of the Prophet (PBUH&HF):
1. When the Messenger of Allah (s) was asked about the meaning
of "whomever I am his MAWLA then Ali is his MAWLA". He said:
"Allah is my MAWLA more deserving of me (my obedience) than
myself, I do not dispute him. I am the MAWLA of the believers,
more deserving in them than themselves, they do not dispute me.
Therefore, whomever I was his MAWLA, more deserving in him
than himself (and) does not dispute me, then Ali is MAWLA,
more deserving in him than himself, he does not dispute him."
- Shamsul Akhbar, by al-Qurashi, Ali Ibn Hamid, p38
- Salwat al-'Arifin, by al-Muwaffaq billah, al-Husain Ibn Isma'il al
2. During the reign of Uthman, Ali protested by reminding people the
following tradition. Also, he reminded it again during the war of
When the Messenger of Allah spoke of (Tradition of Ghadir)...,
Salman stood up and said: "O' Messenger of Allah! What does WALAA
mean? and how?" Prophet replied: "The same way that I am your WALI
(Wala-un ka wala'i). Whomever (considered me) I was more deserving in
him than himself, then Ali is more deserving in him than himself."
Sunni reference: Fara'id al-Samtain, by Hamawaini (Abu Is'haq Ibrahim Ibn
Sa'd al-Din Ibn al-Hamawiyia), section 58.
3. Ali Ibn Abi Talib was asked about the saying of the Messenger
of Allah "Whomever I am his MAWLA then Ali is his MAWLA". He said:
"He erected me chief ['alaman]. To the time I am up there, whomever
contradicts me then he is lost (misguided in religion)."
Sunni reference: Zain al-Fata, by al-Hafiz al-'Asimi
4. On the commentary of Verse: "And stop them, they are to be asked
(Quran 37:24)", al-Daylami narrated that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said: The
Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "And stop them, they will be asked
of WILAYAH of Ali."
Also, al-Hafiz al-Wahidi commented on the above verse saying:
"This WILAYAH that the Prophet (PBUH) affirmed to Ali, will be asked
about on the Day of Judgment. It is said that WILAYAH is what Allah
meant in the verse 37:24 of Quran where He said: "And stop them, they
are to be asked [37:24]". This means that they will be asked about the
WILAYAH of Ali (RA). The meaning is: They will be asked if they truly
accepted him as their WALI as they were instructed by the Prophet
(PBUH)? or did they loose and ignore it?"
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, subheading 1,
p229 quoted from al-Wahidi; also quoted from al-Daylami on the authority
of Abi Sa'id al-Khudri.
- Fara'id al-Samtain, by Hamawaini (Abu Is'haq Ibrahim Ibn Sa'd al-Din Ibn
al-Hamawiyia), section 14
- Nudhum Durar al-Samtain, by Jaml al-Din al-Zarandi
- al-Rashfah, by al-Hadhrami, p24
Countless scholars of Quran, Arabic grammar, and literature have
interpreted the word MAWLA as Awla which means "having more authority."
The following Sunni specialists all confirmed the above meaning:
1. al-Wahidi (d. 468), in "al-Wasit"
2. al-Akhfash Nahwi (d. 215), in "Nihayat al-Uqul"
3. al-Tha'labi (d. 427), in "al-Kashf wal Bayan"
4. Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276), in "al-Qurtayan", v2, p164
5. al-Kalbi (d. 146, quoted in "Tafsir al-Kabir", by al-Razi, v29, p227)
6. al-Farra' (as quoted in "Ruhul Ma'ani", by al-Alusi, v27, p178)
7. al-Nasafi (d. 701), in his "Tafsir", v4, p229
8. al-Tabari (d. 310), in "Tafsir al-Tabari", v9, p117
9. al-Bukhari (d. 215), in "Sahih al-Bukhari", v7, p271
10. al-Zamakhshari (d. 538), in "Tafsir al-Kashshaf", v2, p435
11. Qazi Nasiruddin al-Baydawi (d. 692), in "tafsir al-Baydawi", v2, p497
12. al-Khazin al-Baghdadi (d. 741), in his "Tafsir", v4, p229
13. Muhib al-Din al-Afandi, in "Tanzil al-Ayat"
14. Mu'ammar Ibn Muthanna al-Basri (as quoted in "Sharh al-Mawaqif", by
al-Sharif al-Jurjani, v3, p271)
15. Abul Abbas Tha'lab (as quoted in "Sharh al-Sab'ah al-Mu'allaqah", by
16. Ibn Abbas, in his "Tafsir" written on the margin of Durr al-Manthur,
17. Abu al-Saud al-Hanafi (d. 972), in his "Tafsir"
18. and many more such as Yahya Ibn Zaid Kufi (d. 207), Abu Ubaida Basri
(d. 210), Abu Zaid Ibn Aus Basri (d. 125), Abu Bakr Anbari (d. 328),
Abul Hasan Rummani (d. 384), Sa'd al-Din Taftazani (d. 791), Shaba
Uddin Khafaji (d. 1069), Hamzawi Maliki (d. 1303), Husain Ibn Mas'd
(d. 510), Abu Baqa Ukbari (d. 616), Ibn Hajar al-Haythmai (d. 974),
Sharif Jurjani (d. 618), Abdul Abbas Mubarrad (d. 285), Abu Nasr Farabi
(d. 393) and, Abu Zakariya Khateeb Tarizi (d. 502),...
Thus the word WALI or MAWLA in the tradition of Ghadir Khum does not mean a
simple friend, rather it means master and guardian who has more authority
over believers than what they have over themselves as Prophet himself
mentioned by saying "Don't I have more authority (Awla) on believers than
what they have over themselves?". At least 64 Sunni traditionists have
quoted this preceding question of the Prophet, among them are al-Tirmidhi,
al- Nisa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad In Hanbal. Therefore, the opinion of the above
Sunni scholars accords with what Prophet (PBUH&HF) said by using the word
Awla before the word MAWLA. In fact, when a word has more than one meaning,
the best way to find out its true connotation is to look at the association
(qarinah) and the context. The word Awla (having more authority) used by
the Prophet gives a good association for the word MAWLA.
Also the prayer of Prophet after his declaration in which he said:
"O' God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are
hostile to him. Help those who help him, and forsake those who
shows that Ali (AS) on that day was entrusted with a responsibility
(rulership) which, by its nature, would make some people his enemy, and in
carrying out that responsibility he would need some helpers and supporters.
Are helpers ever needed to carry on a "friendship"?
Moreover, The declaration of Prophet (PBUH&HF) that "It seems the time is
approached when I will be called away (by Allah) and I will answer that
call" clearly shows that he was making arrangements for the leadership of
Muslims after his death.
Also when at the end of his speech, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) said twice:
"Behold! Haven't I conveyed the message of Allah?" or "It is incumbent upon
every one who is present to inform the absents for they may understand it
better than those who are present" (Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English,
traditions 5.688, 7.458, and 9.539) shows that the Prophet was conveying
a very important message which was going to be transferred to all coming
generations. This matter could not have been a simple friendship.
It is worth mentioning that Prophet did use the word Caliph in his speech
in Ghadir Khum, but it does not appear in the majority of Sunni documents
since there is no way to tamper the meaning of that word. However the
Prophet (PBUH&HF) also used the word MAWLA in his speech to survive this
event from being wiped up from the historical records with no trace.
It is interesting to note that the words WALI and MAWLA are also used in
Quran frequently with the meaning of master and guardian. For instance, the
Holy Quran states:
"Allah is the WALI of those who believe; He brings them out of
darkness (and takes them) into light." (Quran 2:257)
The above verse does not mean that Allah is just a friend of believers,
because a simple friend who has no authority cannot move anybody into
light. Rather it means Allah is the Master of believers and that is why He
moves them from darkness to light. In another verse Allah said:
"Surely the AWLIYAA of Allah have no fear nor do they grieve."
The word AWLIYAA is the plural form of WALI. The above verse does not mean
that whoever is the friend of Allah does not have any fear. Many good
Muslims may have experienced fear for some events in their lifetime while
they are NOT the enemies of Allah. Thus the above verse suggests something
else than a simple friend. Here the word WALI is in the form of FAEEL with
the meaning of MAF'OOL. So the above verse means: "Those whose guardian and
the master of their affairs is Allah are not subject to fear and
apprehension." So if a believer TOTALLY submits to Allah, he then will not
have any fear. But ordinary believers whose submission are not perfect,
will probably be subject to fear of this and that, while we are still
friends of Allah. Thus "WALI of Allah" is a person who has totally
submitted his affairs to Allah and therefore he is totally protected by
Allah from any kind of flaw and sin. This status is much higher than
position of being just a "Friend of Allah".
Nevertheless Allah uses the word AWLIYAA in its general meaning that is
"protectors". The Holy Quran states:
"The believers, men and women, are AWLIYAA of one to the other:
they command to what is just and forbid what is evil" (Quran 9:71).
Looking at different translations, one can find that they have used the
word "protectors" for the meaning of AWLIYAA. The above verse does not want
to say that the believers are just friends of each other. Rather the believers
are under a mutual obligation to one another, and are occupied with each
other's affair. As a result of these obligations, they "command each other
what is good and forbid each other what is evil" as the rest of above verse
suggests. Thus here the meaning of AWLIYAA, though is still higher than
"friends", but it is clearly lower than "master" and "leader". Here AWLIYAA
has been used in its general meaning. But for a special meaning of WALI,
see the following verse:
"ONLY Allah is your WALI, and His Messenger and those among
believers who keep alive prayer AND pay Zakat while they are in the
state of bowing." (Quran 5:55)
The above verse clearly suggests that NOT all the believers are our WALI
with the special meaning of WALI in this verse which is "master" and
"leader". Again, here it is clear that WALI does not mean just a friend,
because all the believers are friends of each other.
The above verse mentions that only God and two people
are your special WALI: Allah, Prophet Muhammad, and Imam Ali
for he was the only one at the time of Prophet who paid Zakat while he was
in the state bowing (ruku'). Muslim scholars are unanimous in reporting
this event. Here are just some of the Sunni references which mentioned the
revelation of the above verse of Quran in the honor of Imam Ali:
(1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tha'labi, under Verse 5:55
(2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v6, pp 186,288-289
(3) Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Quran, by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Qurtubi, v6, p219
(4) Tafsir al-Khazin, v2, p68
(5) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Suyuti, v2, pp 293-294
(6) Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, Egypt 1373, v1, pp 505,649
(7) Asbab al-Nuzool, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Egypt 1382, v1, p73 on the
authority of Ibn Abbas
(8) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi
(9) Sharh al-Tjrid, by Allama Qushji
(10) Ahkam al-Quran, al-Jassas, v2, pp 542-543
(11) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p38
(12) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, p391
(13) al-Awsat, by Tabarani, narrated from Ammar Yasir
(14) Ibn Mardawayh, on the authority of Ibn Abbas
... and more.
Paying Zakat during bowing (ruku') is not a Sunnah. This is accepted by ALL
Muslim scholars. Thus the above verse does not seek to set down the
desirability or the necessity of paying Zakat during bowing (ruku'), nor
does it want to lay it down as duty or something recommended legally in the
Islamic sense as a kind of Divine Law (Shari'ah). Rather it is a
reference to an action which took place when someone did something in the
external world, and now Quran is pointing that action to indicate that
person. In an indirect way, the verse wants to say that this WALI is a
special WALI whose authority has been put beside the authority of Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH&HF) since they are jointly mentioned.
One may object that even though Ali did this action, a plural form has been
used in the above verse, thus it might encompass some other people as well.
First, the history tells us that there was no other individual who did this
at the time of Prophet. Second, this way of approach in Quran which uses
plural form but actually referring to just one person who did that
particular act, is NOT uncommon in Quran. For instance Allah mentioned:
"They say: If we return to Medina the mightier (element) will soon
drive out the weaker." (63:8)
Here also Quran is referring to a story which took place, and uses the
phrase "They say" while the speaker of the above sentence was not any more
than one person. According to Shia and Sunni commentators he was Abdullah
Ibn Ubayy Ibn Salul.
Quran tries to avoid using names of people as much as possible. This is
done for many reasons such as generality to make it a universal book, and
also to make Quran safer from any possible alteration by those who hate a
special individual who has been praised in Quran, or by those who love a
person who has been denounced in Quran.
Using plural while referring to single, has another application too.
Sometimes the act of a single person is worthier than the deeds of a whole
nation. This was the case for Prophet Muhammad, Imam Ali, as well as the
case for Prophet Abraham. Quran mentions that Abraham (AS) was a nation
(Ummah), meaning that his deeds was more valuable than all other people.
"Lo! Abraham was a nation (Ummah) who was obedient to Allah,
by nature upright, and he was not of the idolaters" (Quran 16:120)
The famous and respected companion of Prophet, Ibn Abbas (RA) said:
"There is no verse in Quran in which the term `Believers', unless Ali
is at the top of them and the chief of them and the more virtuous one
among them. Surely Allah has admonished the companions of Muhammad
(PBUH) in Quran, but He did not refer to Ali except with honor."
- Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p654, tradition #1114
- al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, v3, p229
- Tarikh al-Khulafaa, by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p171
- Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p89
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 9, section 3, p196
- Others such as Tabarani and Ibn Abi Hatam
And further, Ibn Abbas said:
"There hath not been revealed in the Book of God regarding anyone
what has been revealed concerning Ali," and that "three hundred
verses have been revealed concerning Ali."
- Ibn Asakir, as quoted in:
- Tarikh al-Khulafaa, by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p171
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 9, section 3, p196
Thus the verse (5:55) is actually saying that ONLY Allah is your WALI,
and then Prophet Muhammad, and Imam Ali. Thus we can conclude that the
WILAYAH (mastership/leadership) of Imam Ali is the same as that of Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH&HF) since Allah put them beside each other. The authority
of Prophet Muhammad is explained by the following verses of Quran:
"The Prophet has a greater priority/authority (Awla) over the
believers than what they have over themselves" (Quran 33:6)
"O' you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those from
among you who are given authority (by Allah)." (Quran 4:59)
One may look at other verses with regard to the authority of Prophet such
as 4:65, 59:7, 9:103, 33:21. Putting all these verses beside the verse
5:55, one can derive that this priority and authority will also be for Imam
Ali after the demise of the Messenger of Allah.
al-Nisa'i and al-Hakim have also recorded other versions of the tradition
of Ghadir Khum with different wordings which provide more insight to the
meaning of the tradition. They narrated on the authority of Zaid Ibn Arqam
Prophet added: "Certainly Allah is my MAWLA and I am WALI (master/
guardian) of all the faithful." Then he grasped the hand of Ali and
said: "He (Ali) is the WALI of all those of whom I am WALI. O Allah!
Love those who love him and hate those who hate him."
- Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, p21
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p109
In another wording:
Prophet (PBUH) asked three times: "O' people! Who is your MAWLA? They
replied: Allah and His Messenger." Then he grasped the hand of Ali and
raised it and said: "Whoever his WALI is Allah and his Messenger, then
this man is his WALI also."
Sunni reference: Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, p6
If WALI means friend, then why people answered only Allah and His
Messenger are WALI? They should have answered all the believers are WALI.
This clearly shows that people got it right, but they later chose to act
otherwise. Now let us look at the following tradition:
Ali came to the plain of Rahbah, and some people told him "Peace on
you O' our MAWLA!" Ali replied: "How can I be your MAWLA while you are
Arabs (free men)?" They said: "We heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH)
on the day of Ghadir Khum who said: `Whoever I was his MAWLA he (Ali)
is his MAWLA.'"
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p419
If MAWLA means friend, then why was Ali (AS) asking the above question?
Was friendship new to Arabs? In fact Imam Ali was asking this question
to reiterate the importance of the word MAWLA and showing that people
at that time did not mean it friend for him, and that what they meant is
master of the believers.
Concluding the above discussion, it is clear that any individual who tries
to trivialize the tradition of Ghadir Khum by saying that Prophet just
wanted to say "Ali is the friend of believers", is neglecting the above-
mentioned traditions of prophet in which he explained what he meant by
WALI, and also neglecting the above-mentioned verses of Quran (those which
were revealed in Ghadir Khum and those which explain the importance of
WALI). Finally, the following tradition from Sunni references further
illuminates the fact that WALI means Imam since the tradition uses the
phrase "follow them" and "Imam". Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated that the
Messenger of Allah said:
"Whoever wishes to live and die like me, and to abide in the Garden of
Eden after death, should acknowledge Ali as WALI after me, and take
his WALI (i.e., Imams after him) as WALI, and should follow the Imams
after me for they are my Ahlul-Bayt and are created from my clay and
are gifted with the same knowledge and understanding as myself.
Woe unto those who deny their virtues and those who disregard their
relationship and affinity with me, for my intercession shall never
(1) Hilyatul Awliya', by Abu Nu'aym, v1, pp 84,86
(2) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p128
(3) al-Jamiul Kabir, by al-Tabarani
(4) al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
(5) Kanzul Ummal, v6, p155
(6) al-Manaqib, by al-Khawarizmi, p34
(7) Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, by al-Qunduzi al-Hanafi, p149
(8) History of Ibn Asakir, v2, p95
"Wa dara al-haqq ma'ahu haithu dar", literally: "And the truth (the
right path) turns with him (i.e. Ali) wherever way he turns."
Sunni reference: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, under the
commentary of "al-Bismilah"
Similarly in Sahih al-Tirmidhi, it is narrated that:
The Messenger of God said: "O God, have Thy Mercy on Ali. O God,
make the right and the truth with Ali in all situations."
Sunni reference: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p297
In Arabic, linguistically, the wording (balagha) could play tricks on the
listener. Logically, truth is absolute and not variable. A person, relative
to the truth, could be variable in action.
In this case, the person (i.e. Imam Ali) is placed as the absolute fixed
axes around which the event is taking place; such that, if anything changes
in the person's decision, the event is the thing that will change its track
-- truth in this case!!! Since, such change is not logically reasonable
due to the absolute nature of truth, then one can conclude that the two are
married and are inseparable. Hence, Ali (AS) stands for truth at all
Thus the saying of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) is a metaphoric way to stress
Ali's importance and attachment to the truth (right path) such that
Ali (AS) and the "right path" are indistinguishable.
Whereas, if we put in the reverse order (i.e. Ali turns with truth...) it
would leave room, theoretically, for Ali to make other possible turns, by
virtue of Ali being the moving object. This would sound weaker, and would
imply the nature of a non-infallible person.
The chains (asnad) of narrations of Ghadir Khum
The importance of the tradition of Ghadir Khum in history is reflected in
its widespread documentation and mentioned by the multitude of
personalities over the centuries. Although, some trivialized, only listed
the occurrence among the historical events without giving it a thought, or
discussed the matter in a mixture of emotional judgments, none could deny
the authenticity of these narrations. The essence of what the Messenger of
Allah (PBUH&HF) delivered on the day of Ghadir was not disputed among any,
even if they disagreed on its interpretation, for reasons obvious to
Let us look at the lists of some of the Sunni traditions, commentators, and
historians who have documented the tradition of Ghadir Khum in
Sunni Traditionists who mentioned the Tradition of Ghadir Khum
1. Mohammed Ibn Idris al-Shafi'i (Imam al-Shafi'i, d. 204) per
"al-Nihayah" by Ibn al-Athir
2. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (Imam al-Hanbali, d. 241), in "Masnad" and "al-Manaqib"
3. Ibn Majah (d. 273), in "Sunan Ibn Majah"
4. al-Tirmidhi (d. 279), in "Sahih al-Tirmidhi"
5. al-Nisa'i (d. 303), in "al-Khasa'is"
6. Abu-Ya'la al-Mousilli (d. 307), in "al-Masnad"
7. al-Baghawi (d. 317), in "al-Sunan"
8. al-Doolabi (d. 320), in "al-Kuna wal Asmaa"
9. al-Tahawi (d. 321), in "Mushkil al-Athar"
10. al-Hakim (d. 405), in "al-Mustadrak"
11. Ibn al-Maghazili al-Shafi'i (d. 483), in "al-Manaqib"
12. Muhammad al-Ghazzali (d. 505), in "Sirrul `Alamayn"
13. Ibn Mindah al-Asbahani (d. 512), in his book
14. al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi (d. 568), in "al-Manaqib" and "Maqtal al-Imam
15. Abul Faraj Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597), in "Manaqib"
16. al-Ganji al-Shafi'i (d. 658), in "Kifayat al-Talib"
17. Muhib al-Din al-Tabari (d. 694), in "al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah" and
18. al-Hamawainy (d. 722), in "Fara'id al-Samdtin"
19. al-Dhahabi (d. 748), in "al-Talkhis"
20. al-Khatib al-Tabrizi (d. 8th century), in "Mishkat al-Masabih"
21. al-Haythami (d. 807), in "Majma' al-Zawa'id"
22. al-Jazri (d. 830), in "Asna al-Matalib"
23. Abul Abbas al-Qastalani (d. 923), in "al-Mawahib al-Ladaniya"
24. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (d. 975), in "Kanz al-Ummal"
25. Abdul Haqq al-Dihlawi, in "Sharh al-Mishkat"
26. al-Hurawi al-Qari (d. 1014), in "al-Muraqat fi Sharh al-Mishkat"
27. Taj al-Din al-Manawi (d. 1031), in "Kunooz al-Haqa'iq fi Hadith
Khair al-Khala'iq" and "Faidh al-Qadir"
28. al-Shaikhani al-Qadiri, in "al-Siratul Sawi fi Manaqib Aal al-Nabi"
29. Ba Kathir al-Makki (d. 1047), in "Wasilatul Amal fi Manaqib al-Aal"
30. Abu-Abdullah al-Zarqani al-Maliki (d. 1122), in "Sharh al-Mawahib"
31. Ibn Hamzah al-Dimashqi al-Hanafi, in "al-Bayan wal Taarif"
... and many others.
Sunni Commentators of Quran who mentioned Ghadir Khum
The following Sunni commentators mentioned that one or some or all of
the mentioned verses of Quran (such as [5:67] which was about the Allah's
order to Prophet for announcement of appointment of Ali, [5:3] which was
about completeness of religion, and [70:1] which was about the curse of
a person who became angry at the Prophet for this announcement) were
reported to have been revealed in the event of Ghadir Khum:
1. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310), in "Tafsir al-Bayan"
2. al-Jassas (d. 370), in "Ahkam al-Quran"
3. al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym (d. 430), in "Asbab al-Nuzool"
4. al-Tha'labi (d. 427 or 437), in "Tafsir al-Tha'labi"
5. al-Wahidi (d. 468), in "Asbab al-Nuzool"
6. al-Qurtubi (d. 568), in "Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Quran"
7. al-Fakhr al-Razi (d. 606), in "al-Tafsir al-Kabir"
8. al-Khazin Baghdadi (d. 741), in "Tafsir al-Khazin"
9. al-Nisaboori (8th century), in "Tafsir al-Nisaboori"
10. Ibn Kathir (d. 774), in his "Tafsir" (complete version) under the verse
5:3 (It is ommitted in coincise version!) narrated from Ibn Mardawayh.
11. al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti (d. 910), in his "Tafsir"
12. al-Khatib al-Sharbini, in his "Tafsir"
13. Abu al-Saud al-Hanafi (d. 972), in his "Tafsir"
14. al-Aloosi al-Baghdadi (d. 1270), in his "Tafsir"
... and many others.
Sunni Historians who mentioned the Tradition of Ghadir Khum
1. Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276), in "Ma'arif" and "Imamah wal Siyasah"
2. al-Baladhuri (d. 279), in "Ansab al-ashraf"
3. Ibn Zawlaq al-Laithi al-Misri (d. 287), in his book
4. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310), in an exclussive book "Kitabul Wilayah"
5. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463), in "Tarikh Baghdad"
6. Ibn Abd al-Bar (d. 463), in "al-Isti'ab"
7. al-Shahristani (d. 548), in "al-Milal wal Nihal"
8. Ibn 'Asakir (d. 571), in "Tarikh Ibn 'Asakir" and "Yaqoot al-Hamawi"
9. Ibn al-Athir (d. 630), in "Usd al-Ghabah"
10. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 654), in "Tadhkirat Khawas al-Ummah"
11. Ibn Abi al-Hadid (d. 656), in "Sharh Nahjul Balagha"
12. Ibn Khalkan (d. 681), in "Tarikh Ibn Khalkan"
13. Abul Fida (d. 732), in his "Tarikh"
14. al-Dhahabi (d. 748) , in "Tadhkirat al-Huffadh"
15. al-Yafi'i (d. 768), in "Miraat al-Jinan"
16. Ibn al-Shaikh al-Balawi, in "Alef Baa"
17. Ibn Kathir (d. 774), in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah"
18. Ibn Khaldoon (d. 808), in "al-Muqaddimah"
19. al-Nuwairi (d. ~833), in "Nihayat al-Irab fi Finoon al-Adab"
20. al-Maqrizi (d. )
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