What seems evident from the previous traditions (mentioned in chapter No. 4) is this that Mahdi, the Awaited one is the son of Abu Muhammad Imam Hassan Askari (A.S.).
The Shia Imamiyahs and majority of the Sunni scholars unanimously believe that his honourable father's name is Hassan.(90)
Verily, it is in some of the rare and uncommon traditions that the name of Hazrat Mahdi's father is mentioned to be the same as the Holy Prophet's father.
Abu Dawoud in his 'Sahih' (Vol 4 Pg. 78) has narrated from Zurra-ibn-Abdullah a tradition from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such:
'If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God will set the day so long until a person from my progeny shall appear and .... His name is the same as mine and his father's name is the same as my father's name.'
The author of Eqdud-Durar has narrated this tradition (in the second chapter) from a group mainly comprising of Tirmidhi, Abu Dawoud and Baihaqi.
Thereafter he says: This tradition has been mentioned by Imam Ahmad Hanbal in his 'Musnad'. However he has not mentioned the afore-said sentence of the Holy Prophet that his father's name is the same as my father's name.
The author says: I have come across some portions of traditions wherein the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) says: The name of Mahdi's father is the same as my father's name. Apparently, Abu Dawoud is preferred. Thus, we say: Shablanji, in 'Nur-ul-Absar' (page 231) has narrated the afore-mentioned tradition of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) from Abu Dawoud and he from Zurra-ibn-Abdullah but without this sentence that Mahdi's father's name is the same as my father's name. He (i.e. Abu Dawoud) says: In another tradition the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) says: 'The name of Mahdi's father is the same as my father's name.' This very difference in narration from Abu Dawoud causes one to doubt his narration and consider it to be unreliable. Even if we assume this tradition to be firm, it is (still) against and contrary to the numerous 'Mustafiza' traditions which are more authentic (from the view-point of the chain of transmission) and obvious (from the view-point of reasoning) than the previously - mentioned tradition. Therefore, one should not pay attention to this tradition at all.
In this regard Ali-ibn-Isa Arbeli in 'Kashf-ul-Ghumma' says: Shi'ites do not consider this tradition to be correct because the name of Mahdi and his father's name too has been proved for them (as per authentic reasons). The Sunni scholars, have mentioned that the narrator has added something to this tradition. Thus, it should be said that this sentence (i.e. the Holy Prophet saying: 'His father's name is the same as my father's name') is an addition.
The author of 'Al-Bayan-Fi-Akhbar-Saheb-uz -Zaman' says: 'Abul-Abbass-ibn-Abul-Karam Khas'amee (i.e. Omar-ibn-Me'mar Baghdadi) has narrated from Abul-Fath-ibn-Abul-Qasim-ibn-Abu Sahil Karukhi and he from Abu Aamer-ibn-Qasim and others and they from Abu Muhammad Maruzi and he from Abul-Abbass-ibn-Marzabani and he from Hafez Abu Isa and he from Abdul-Jabbar-ibn-E'la Atthar and he from Sufyan-ibn-Aiyana and he from Aasim and he from Zurra and he from Abdullah and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such:- 'A person from my progeny who carries the same name as mine, shall become the Master (of this earth).
Athim has narrated from Abu Saleh who in turn has narrated from Abu Huraira as such: 'If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God will set the day so long until a person becomes the owner of this earth.'
Author of 'Al-Bayan-Fi-Akhbar-Saheb-uz- Zaman' says: 'This tradition is an authentic tradition and Hafez Muhammad-ibn-Isa Tirmidhi has narrated this in a similar manner in his 'Sahih'.
He continues: 'Allama Hassan-ibn-Hassan Laghwi sent a letter for me in Damascus and after I met him in Baghdad he said: Nasr-ibn-Abul-Faraj Hasari has narrated from Abu Talib Muhammad-ibn-Muhammad-ibn-Abu Zaid Alavi and he from Abu Ali Shustari and he from Abu Omar Hashimi and he from Abu Ali Muhammad-ibn-Omar Lu'lui Basri and he from Hafez Abu Dawoud Sulaiman-ibn-Ash'as Sajestani and he from Musaddad and he from Yahya-ibn-Sa'eed and he from Sufyan and he from Aasim and he from Zurra and he from Abdullah and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such: 'The world shall not cease to exist until a person from my progeny who shall carry the same name as mine becomes the Master amongst the Arabs.'
The author of 'Al-Bayan-Fi-Akhbar-Saheb-uz-Zaman' adds: 'This tradition is an acceptable and correct tradition and Abu Dawoud has narrated it in his 'Sunan' in the same manner which we have narrated.
Abu Dawoud says: Uthman-ibn-Abu Shuiba has narrated from Fazl-ibn-Dakeen and he from Qatar and he from Qasim-ibn-Abu Marra and he from Abu Tafeel and he from Ali and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) who said: 'If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God will appoint a person from my progeny to fill the earth with Justice just as it had been filled with oppression.
The author says: Abu Dawoud has mentioned this tradition in the same manner in his 'Sunan'.
The author of the book «Manaqib as-Shafa'ee» has mentioned the afore-said tradition and then said:
The narrator has added the following sentence to this tradition and said: If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth, God will set the day so long until a person from my progeny who carries the same name as mine and whose father carries the same name as my father's name, appears and fills the earth with equity and Justice just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression.
The author says: Tirmidhi has narrated the afore-said tradition but not the sentence of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) saying: The name of Mahdi's father is the same as my father's name.
However Abu Dawoud has mentioned the afore-said sentence. In most of the traditions which are object of reliance of most of the experts (of traditions)and narrators, only this sentence can be found where the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) says: 'His (i.e. Mahdi's)name is the same as mine'. The sentence that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: 'His father's name is the same as my father's name' is an addition made by the narrator.
If the afore-said- sentence happens to be correct it would mean that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has said; 'The name of Mahdi's father is the same as my son, Hussein's name and his agnomen is Abu Abdullah.
He has set the agnomen as name so as to allusively speak of this fact that Mahdi would be from the progeny of Hussein and not from the progeny of Imam Hassan. It is (also) possible that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) must have said: 'The name of Mahdi's father is the same as my son, Hassan's name.' The name of Mahdi's father too was Hassan but the narrator has thought «--» (my son) to be «--» (my father) and hence changed it to «--». Thus it is necessary to interpret and explain this tradition in the manner which we have done so that perhaps we have mustered together all the traditions.
This interpretation which was said with regards to the previously mentioned tradition is not correct. Rather, it should be interpreted in another manner and it is as follows:
Imam Ahmad, with his good recording and care in traditions, has mentioned the afore-said tradition in several places of his book 'Musnad' in this manner that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) only said: 'Mahdi's name is the same as my name.'
Abdul-Aziz-ibn-Muhammad Ansari has imputedly narrated from Zurra and he from Abdullah that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: 'The world shall not be destroyed or rather said: The world shall not terminate until a person from my progeny who carries the same name as mine shall become the master amongst the Arabs.'
In the book of 'Manaqib-e-Mahdi', Hafez Abu Na'eem has narrated the ways of the afore-said tradition from a great number of people who have all narrated from Aasim-ibn-Abu Najwad and he from Zurra and he from Abdullah and he from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.). Amongst them we may speak of Sufyan-ibn-Ainiya (as mentioned before) whose ways differ from that of Aasim. Amongst them is Qatar-ibn Khalifa whose ways too differ from that of Aasim. Amongst them is A'mash whose ways differ from the ways of Aasim. Amongst them is Abu Ishaaq Sulaiman-ibn-Firuz Shaibani and his ways differ from that of Aasim. Amongst them is Hafas-ibn-Omar. Amongst them is Sufyan Suri whose ways differ from the ways of Aasim. Amongst them is Sh'uba whose ways too differ. Amongst them is Wasith-ibn- Harith. Amongst them is Yazid-ibn-Muawiya-Abu Shuaiba who possesses two ways. Amongst them is Sulaiman-ibn-Qaram whose way differs from that of Aasim. Amongst them are Jafar-Ahmar, Qais-ibn - Rabih, Sulaiman-ibn-Qaram and Esbath who have all been placed on one path. Amongst them is Salam Abu-Munzar. Amongst them is Abu ShahabMuhammad-ibn-Ibrahim Kanani and his ways differ from that of Aasim. Amongst them is Omar-ibn-Ubaid Thanafasi whose ways differ from the ways of Aasim. Amongst them is Abu Bakr-ibn-Aiyaash whose ways differ from that of Aasim. Amongst them is Abul-Hejaf (Dawoud Abul Auf) and his ways differ with the ways of Aasim- Amongst them is Uthman-ibn-Shabrama whose ways differ from that of Aasim. Amongst them is Abdul-Malik-ibn-Abu Ainaiya.
Amongst them is Muhammad-ibn-Aiyaash who has narrated from Omar and Aameri and his ways are different. He has mentioned the chain of transmission and said:- Abu Ghesan has narrated from Qais but not narrated his connection. Amongst them is Amro-ibn-Qais Malavi. Amongst them is Ammaribn-Zarriq.
Amongst them is Aishaan Abdullah-ibn-Hakim-ibn Jubair Asadi. Amongst them is Omar-ibn-Abdullah-ibn -Bashar. Amongst them is Abul-Ahwas. Amongst them is Saad-ibn-Hassan-ibn-Okht Tholaba.
Amongst them is Ma'az-ibn-Hisham who says; 'My father narrated for me from Aasim.' Amongst them is Yusuf-ibn-Yunus. Amongst them is Ghalib-ibn-Uthman. Amongst them is Hamza-ibn-Zaiyat. Amongst them is Shaiban. Amongst them is Hakam-ibn-Hisham.
They have narrated the afore-said tradition from (other than Aasim) Zurra i.e. Omar-ibn-Marra and all the narrators have narrated that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: 'Mahdi's name is the same as my name' (but did not says: His father's name is the same as my father's name) with the exception of the tradition which Ubaidullah-ibn-Musa has narrated from the one who has made an addition in the afore-said tradition and narrated it from Aasim. Only the one who has made this addition in the tradition has narrated the afore-said sentence (as per the narrators) that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: 'His father's name is the same as my father's name'. A wise person will not hesitate to conclude that this additional sentence lacks credibility, notwithstanding this fact that almost all the Sunni leaders have narrated against the afore-said sentence. Allah is All-knowing. The sayings of the author of 'Al-Bayan-Fi-Akhbar Saheb-uz-Zaman' is completed.
The author says: The apparent expression of the book of ' Al-Bayan-Fi-Akhbar Saheb-uz-Zaman is this that Tirmidhi has not narrated this additional sentence. However previously, we understood the saying of the author of 'Eqdud-Durar'. What is evident from this book and the books of 'Matalib-us-Su'ool' and 'Fusul-ul-Muhimma' is. this that Abu Dawoud, Tirmidhi, Baihaqi, Abu Omar, Muqarri and Abu Na'eem have all narrated the afore-said additional sentence (just as you have previously comprehended the truth).
The author of 'Matalib-us-Su'ool' says: If someone remonstrates and says: We agree that when these false attributes are discovered they would be a sign and proof. It would then become necessary to act upon them and prove them for the one who is endowed with them. However we do not believe that these signs and proofs could be applied to Khalaf-e-Saleh Muhammad because, amongst the false attributes, is the sign and proof that Mahdi's father should carry the same name as the Holy Prophet's father and Prophetic hadiths too (just as they have narrated) stipulates this matter. However, this attribute (i.e. Mahdi's father bearing the same name as the Holy Prophet's father) cannot be found in the existence of Mahdi because the name of Mahdi's father is Hassan and the name of the Holy Prophet's father is Abdullah. What kind of a connection exists between Hassan and Abdullah? Therefore, this attribute which is only a part of the signs and proofs cannot be applied to Mahdi and when one part of the cause is not proved the entire cause too cannot be proved, since the rest of the attributes are not enough for proving this decree. This is because the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has not substantiated this decree except for the one in whom all the attributes (where one of them is the similarity of his father's name) is found and this matter cannot be true of 'Hujjat Khalaf'. Thus, this decree too cannot be applied to him and this problem or difficulty is a severe one.
Before giving a detailed reply to this problem it is necessary to express two matters so that we may achieve our aim:
First:- In the Arabic language it is a common practise to apply the word of father for great ancestors. The Holy Quran too speaks of this matter and says: --
(the faith of your father, Ibrahim)
Also, on behalf of Yusuf it says: --
(And I follow the religion of my fathers, Ibrahim and Ishaq...)
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) too has clearly stipulated this matter as can be seen in the tradition of 'Me'raj' (ascension). The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.)asks: Who is this? He replied: 'Your father Ibrahim. Thus it can be observed that the word of «--» (father) is applied to forefathers.
Second:- 'Name' too is used instead of 'agnomen' and 'attribute' just as the eloquent speaking people have done so. This can be observed in traditions also where Bukhari and Muslim have narrated from Sahal-ibn- Saad Saa'edi who narrates from Ali (A.S.) that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) called Ali as 'Abu Turab' and did not call him by this name.
A poet too has pin-pointed this matter in the following poem: --
The words «--» has also been narrated.
Thus this poet has used 'name' instead of agnomen and attribute and this rule is prevalent in the Arabic language.
Now that the two afore-mentioned matters have become clear know that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.)had two grandsons - One was Abu Muhammad (i.e. Hassan) and the other was Aba Abdullah (i.e. Hussein). Considering that Hujjat Khalaf-e-Saleh Muhammad was from the progeny of Aba Abdullah Hussein and not from the progeny of Abu Muhammad Hassan and the agnomen of Hussein is Aba Abdullah also, therefore the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has used the word of '--' (name) [because of confronting for his father's right with --] in place of agnomen and used the word of '--' (father) in place of grandfather. As if the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has said: Mahdi's name is the same as mine - He is Muhammad. I too am. Muhammad and the agnomen of Mahdi's great grandfather is the same as my father's name because Mahdi's great grandfather is Abu Abdullah and my father (too) is Abdullah.
Hazrat explained in this manner so that these brief wordings could be comprehensive enough for explaining the attributes and he himself has had briefly announced that Mahdi is from the progeny of Aba Abdullah Hussein.
Therefore, (with this explanation) the afore-mentioned attributes have been put in order and all of them can be applied to Hujjat Khalaf-e-Saleh Muhammad (A.S.).
This explanation is good and sufficient enough to overcome this problem. So ponder over it.
The author says: Apart from the reasons which the author of 'Al-Bayan' and Ibn-Thalha in Matalib-us-Su'ool have narrated , there are other aspects too as follows:-
Firstly, Allama Majlisi in the beginning of the 13th Volume of his book 'Bihar-ul-Anwar' says: some of the contemporaries have said: With regard to the afore said tradition there are other aspects too, like the fact that Imam Hassan Askari's agnomen was Abu Muhammad and Abdullah's (i.e. Hazrat Muhammad's father) agnomen was Abu Muhammad. Thus these two agnomens are in accord with each other and (amongst the Arabs too, just as it will come later on) the agnomen too is in the name. (i.e. the Arabs use agnomen instead of name).
Secondly, some of the contemporary learned scholars have said in the margin of the book of 'Al-Bayan' as such: The best reason in reply to this matter is to say that the wording of the tradition is perhaps in this manner:- Mahdi's name is the same as my name and my father's name. This is because many traditions (which can be seen in the book of 'Ghaibat') say: Mahdi possesses three names where one of them is Abdullah and the Holy Prophets father's name too was Abdullah. In some of the traditions which was previously mentioned, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has said: Mahdi's name is the same as my father's name. Moreover, on the subject matter of this tradition too, it has come that (the Holy Prophet) said: 'Mahdi's name is the same as my name and my father's name. The narrator, not grasping the meaning of the tradition and not even imagining that Mahdi (may Allah hasten his emergence) possesses two other names too, and wishing to have corrected the tradition (as per his own reflection) has added the afore-said sentence (Mahdi's name is the same as my father's name) to the tradition. Previously, we came to know that the afore-said tradition lacked any defect because Mahdi possesses three names. Thus it can be seen that the afore-mentioned tradition does not contradict our traditions in any way. This is the best reply and I have not found anyone replying in this manner although this reply appears to be clear and obvious.
Thirdly, the afore-said scholar in the margin of the afore-mentioned book says: It is possible that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) must have said:- 'Mahdi's name is the same as mine and his son's name is the same as my father's name.' This is because in some of the traditions the name of Mahdi's son has been mentioned to be Abdullah and in the third section of this book it will come that Mahdi's agnomen is Abu Abdullah. Thus a change has occured and the word of «--» (his son) has been converted to .. (his father).
Fourthly, Maula Muhammad Reza Imami Mudarres Khatoon Abadi a researcher and scholar writes in his book 'Jannat-ul-Khulud' (which contains all what one eye can enjoy and all what one desires) as such: 'Our Master Imam Hassan Askari (A.S.) has two names One is Hassan and the other Abdullah. On the basis of the saying of this scholar, the problem is solved and is in accord with the tradition of Abu Dawoud and all other traditions. Although some of the subject-matter of the book of 'Jannat-ul-Khulud' is confined to the book itself yet its author is a person who is a scholar as well as a researcher and perhaps God may enlighten us through his reference and sayings.
Allama Sayed Shahabuddin Najafi who is one of the spiritual leaders of Qum narrated for me as such: 'The Qazvini scholar, Agha Razi'uddin (may his dust be fragrant) has mentioned under «Qurrat-ul-Aafaaq» the same as that which the author of 'Jannat-ul-Khulud' has mentioned.
The conclusion that we can derive from these traditions is this that the most preferable reply would be to stick to one of the following:
(1) The chain of transmission of this tradition (i.e. the Holy Prophet saying: Mahdi's father carries the same name as my father's name) appears to be weak because, it comprises such men who are not reliable and authentic. Rather, they belong to the unknown group. On the contrary, they are those people who are famous as the fabricators of traditions. If there was no one amongst them except the «--» (i.e. the one who is amongst the narrators of this tradition) suffice it was to render this tradition weak.
(2) The text of this tradition is upseting because Imam Ahmad Hanbal has narrated the same tradition in his 'Musnad' (just as it can be seen in 'Eqdud-Durar') without mentioning the saying of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) that 'the name of Mahdi's father is the same as my father's name'.
(3) This tradition has been narrated by Abu Dawoud (who is the original one) in different ways. This is because some have narrated this tradition along with the afore-said sentence while others have narrated without this sentence from Abu Dawoud.
(4) This tradition is opposite and contrary to the numerous traditions which, from the view-point of chain of transmission are more authentic and from the view-point of expression are more manifest.
Rather, this tradition is contradicting a number of other traditions.
(5) If this tradition is interpreted in either of the above four ways (which have been interpreted against its apparent form and to me is inconceivable) it is still better than rejecting it outright.
The author of 'Nurul-Absar' says:- 'Mahdi's father was Abu Muhammad Khales-ibn-Ali Hadi-ibnMuhammad Jawad-ibn-Ali Ridha. Mahdi's mother was a slave-girl who was called Nargis and as per some other saying she was called as Seegal and still as per some other saying she was called as Susan. About Imam Hassan Askari he says: 'His mother was a slave-girl who was named as Susan.
The author says: 'The truth is that Imam Hassan Askari's mother was called as 'Hadees' and what is well-known is this that Susan was one of the names of Mahdi's mother.'
The author of Matalib-us-Su'ool says: 'Mahdi's father was Hassan Khales-ibn-Ali Mutawakkil-ibn Muhammad Qaneh-ibn-Ali Ridha.... His mother was a slave-girl named as Seegal and as per some other saying was called as Hakimah.
The author says: 'I do not know who has said this because, the woman by the name of Hakimah was the daughter of Abu Jafar Hazrat Jawad and aunt of Mahdi's father and she was present at the time of Mahdi's birth.'