How Imam Reza (A.S.) Was
was not politically feasible for al-Mamoon to reach Baghdad accompanied
by Imam al-Reza (A.S.), for that would stir the winds of dissension
against him and he might not be strong enough to withstand them. From
this standpoint, our belief that al-Mamoon was the one who plotted to
end the life of the Imam (A.S.) by giving him poisoned grapes is
strengthened, and the historical environment at the time helps us
confirm this belief even when Ibn al-Athir, in his Tarikh, thinks that
that was not possible. Prominent scholars and historians such as Shaikh
al-Mufid and others have also doubted it, while others such as Sayyid
ibn Tawoos, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, and al-Arbili in Kashf al-Ghumma, have
all dismissed it outright. The latter strongly defended his view, but it
was nevertheless no more than a simplistic and superficial defense. Al-Mamoon's
letter to the Abbasides and the residents of Baghdad, which he wrote
after the demise of Imam al-Reza (A.S.), gives such an impression. "He
wrote the Abbasides and their supporters and to the people of Baghdad
informing them of the death of Ali ibn Mousa and that they had resented
his nomination of him as his successor, asking them now to go back to
their loyalty to him."133
This may be understood as a clear admission that the death of the Imam
(A.S.) was not natural during those circumstances, and the text Ibn
Khaldun provides in expressing the contents of this letter provides even
clearer clues to accusing al-Mamoon of murdering him; he says in his
"... And al-Mamoon sent messages to al-Hassan ibn Sahl, to the people of
Baghdad, and to his supporters apologizing for naming him his regent and
inviting them to go back to his loyalty."134
What can be understood regarding al-Mamoon's regret and realization of
his mistake regarding the regency arrangement is that such regret is
meaningless if it had happened after the Imam's death; rather, it must
have occurred prior to that, so he paved the way to correct it by
assassinating the Imam (A.S.) in order to please the Abbasides, their
supporters, and the people of Baghdad. If we are to stay alone with just
the political circumstances through which al-Mamoon was living during
that shaky period of his reign, overlooking the historical texts whose
contexts lead us to such a conclusion, we would still be able to point
the finger to al-Mamoon regarding the crime of assassinating Imam
al-Reza (A.S.) without being biased to any group or prejudiced against
Al-Saduq narrates saying, "While al-Reza (A.S.) was breathing his last,
al-Mamoon said to him, `By God! I do not know which of the two
calamities is greater: losing you and parting from you, or people's
accusation that I assassinated you...'"135 In another narrative by Abul-Faraj
al-Asbahani, al-Mamoon said to him, "It is very hard for me to live to
see you die, and there was some hope hinging upon your stay, yet even
harder for me than that is that people say I have made you drink poison,
and God knows that I am innocent of that."136
This exciting situation of al-Mamoon discloses the fact that the
accusation of his own murder of the Imam (A.S.) was the subject of
argument, maybe even of conviction, even then, for al-Mamoon asserts
people's accusation of him and he tries to extract an admission from the
Imam (A.S.) clearing him of it, as Abul-Faraj mentions.
Simplistic Justification of al-Mamoon's
It is interesting how some people find it hard to believe that al-Mamoon
would assassinate the Imam (A.S.) simply because of all the grief,
crying, abstention from eating and drinking, which he feigned to show
his distress at the Imam's death, as if they expected al-Mamoon to show
his happiness and excitement at his death in order to give credibility
to the accusation others concealed. But the excuse of these folks is
their superficiality in understanding history, and their
How the Imam Was Martyred
Stories regarding the method al-Mamoon employed to kill Imam al-Reza
(A.S.) are abundant. Abul-Faraj and al-Mufid say that he killed him by
poisoned pomegranate juice and poisoned grape juice. In his Al-Irshad,
al-Mufid quotes Abdullah ibn Bashir saying: "Al-Mamoon ordered me to let
my nails grow as long as they could without letting anyone notice that;
so I did, then he ordered to see me and he gave me something which
looked like tamarind and said, `Squeeze this with both your hands,' and
I did. Then he stood up, left me and went to see al-Reza (A.S.) and said
to him, `How are you?' He answered, `I hope I am alright.' He said, `I,
too, by the Grace of God, am alright; did any well-wisher visit you
today?' He answered in the negative, so al-Mamoon became angry and
called upon his servants to come, then he ordered one of them to
immediately take the pomegranate juice to him, adding, `... for he
cannot do without it.' Then he called me to him and said: `Squeeze it
with your own hands,' and so I did. Then al-Mamoon handed the juice to
al-Reza (A.S.) in person, and that was the reason for his death for he
stayed only two days before he (A.S.) died.'"
Abul-Salt al-Harawi is quoted saying, "I entered the house of al-Reza
(A.S.) after al-Mamoon had already left and he said to me, `O Abul-Salt!
They have done it...!' and he kept unifying and praising God." Muhammad
ibn al-Jahm is quoted saying, "Al-Reza (A.S.) used to love grapes. Some
grapes were said to be prepared for him; needles were pierced inside
them at their very tips and were kept like that for several days. Then
the needles were taken out, and they were brought to him and he ate some
of them and fell into the sickness we have mentioned about him. The
grapes killed him, and it was said that that was one of the most
effective methods of poisoning."137
Regardless of the method of assassination, what seems to be acceptable,
having examined all texts and the historical background of the political
circumstances at that time, al-Mamoon was indeed the one who killed Imam
al-Reza (A.S.), and we do not have the slightest doubt or hesitation
"His death occurred at Toos in a village called Sanabad, of the Nooqan
area, and he was buried at the house of Hameed ibn Tahtaba under the
dome where Haroun al-Rashid had been buried, and he was buried beside
him facing the qibla."138
"When al-Reza (A.S.) died, al-Mamoon did not disclose it when it
happened, leaving him dead for one day and one night, then he called for
Muhammad ibn Ja'fer ibn Muhammad and a group of descendants of Abu Talib.
When they were present, he showed him to them; his corpse looked
alright; then he started weeping and addressed the corpse saying, `O
Brother! It is indeed very hard for me to see you in such a condition,
and I was hoping to go before you, but God insisted on carrying out His
decree,' and he showed a great deal of agony and grief and went out
carrying the coffin with others till he reached the place where it is
"... So al-Mamoon was present there before the grave was dug, and he
ordered his grave to be dug beside that of his father, then he
approached us and said, `The person inside this coffin told me that when
his grave is dug, water and fish will appear underneath; so, dig...'
They dug. When they finished digging, a spring of water appeared, and
fish appeared in it, then the water dissipated, and al-Reza (A.S.),
peace be upon him, was then buried."140
Imam is Eulogized
When al-Reza (A.S.) died, poets composed eulogies and mourned in him the
hope that entertained the conscience of the nation that one day he would
be the caliph so that equity might restore its shining light after being
put out by the caliphs who employed cheating and deception as their
methods to mislead and confuse the nation. When they set the limits of
conduct for others, they themselves at the same time trampled upon them
by committing every act prohibited by God in His Book and by His Prophet
(S.A.W.), far from the eyes of the people, and maybe even in public.
Among those who eulogized him was Da'bal ibn Ali al-Khuza'i, the renown
poet of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) and their advocate. He composed many
eulogies about Imam al-Reza (A.S.). Among them is what Abul-Faraj
"Ali ibn Sulayman al-Akhfash recited verses for me by Da'bal ibn Ali al-Khuza'i
in which he mentioned al-Reza (A.S.) and the poison he was given and
mourning one of his sons and chastising the Abbaside caliphs:
Unwillingly did you part with Ahmed, and the earth
Engulfed a building, sublime and dignified,
You housed him in a place mean in wares
And I against my wish compromised,
A fugitive just for loving him...
Had I not been consoled by the Prophet
And by his near in kin, I would have
Poured my tears for him abundantly;
I loved myself, but I loved even more
The family of Muhammad whose love resides
In my heart, living with me, being in me.
The Prophet's legacy availed them naught,
For Death in it with them has a share,
And a share for the hope for death...
Hunted and pursued for many a year
By foxes from Umayya, time and again.
Banu Abbas played havoc with the creed,
Reaping oppression, miserliness and greed.
Named `Rashid' who was never to wisdom keen,
Named this `Mamoon' and named that `Amin'!
Never did I accept them to be for
Wisdom a name, but for guidance a shame.
Nor to their trusts were they ever true,
Their `Rashid' is misguided and his sons
One with sins more than the other's impudence.
O grave in the foreign land of Toos!
Mourned are you by caravans shunning daylight...
I am in doubt... Should I offer a drink
Of water to one, so I remember you and cry?
Or is in the cup my remedy so I die?
Either I meant, when I say a drink,
If it is death, then let it be swift.
How marvellous they call you Pleased!
For they never made your life eased.
Is it odd when rogues distort the light
Of God's Creed, though it is bright?
Your favours miracles made for them and me,
But who is among them that can ever see?"
Thus does Da'bal expose in these verses the memories of horrible
tragedies to which Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) were exposed, and the woes they
suffered from at the hands of the governments of both Umayyads and
Abbasides, chastising al-Rashid and both his sons, then going after that
to eulogize Imam al-Reza (A.S.) in a style which shows genuine distress
and agony, including the same accusation that al-Mamoon had murdered
Among others who eulogized him was Amr al-Salami who says in his eulogy:
O you, caravan singer, singing at the reins!
Listen, and let others tomorrow listen to thee...
Recite Salam on a grave at Toos and do not
Recite Salam or wish well the people of Toos,
Terror did the hearts of Muslims fill,
And fear of Iblis now has hatched at will,
For silence now is the best man that lived
So, what a loss, and what a loser!
Should Death come to rule the throne,
He will face men with faces of stone.
Away with Toos for never were its homes
Telling of misery to come and to be
A wedding for the dead, not a life for the doer.
How long the flute, how merry the wedding!
Fates reached him with the claws,
While troops throng and hard to count
Death found the most gentle cub in his den,
And death meets the father of cubs in the den.
Still deriving light from his father,
Reaching the Prophet, light without fire.
In soil their branches stood tall and high
Of lofty trunk, in the King's land thrives.
Branches stand when roots are firm
And the world by sure faith lives.
No day is more fit for grief
For beating, for tearing the sleeve
For wounding cheeks, for cutting the nose
More than the day of Toos
When mourners mourned, scribes cried,
`Is it really true al-Reza died?'
Death takes only the envied away.
That who lived for two minutes or a day
Is lying like one who will join and stay
Maybe in two days..., who can say?
When the sun shone, his own did set,
The day had come when he was to rest.
Why? Give the garb of death please to me,
Why take him into a grave, woe unto me?
Victim of a day that couldn't dare to be
Victimized. Wrapped him in the garb of death,
Let me be the wearer, please, not he,
Of a garb never sewn or worn before.
Greets you the One you did worship and adore,
On days of heat, nights of chill, in the plains,
Had things in life not stood in contrast
In virtues, none would have ever passed
A judgement in it that could endure.
The Almighty has welcomed thee to a place
That is everlasting with bliss and grace
To His Messenger you are now near,
A place so lovely, a place so dear.
In his Maqatil, Abul-Faraj indicated that when this poem won publicity
and became well known, Ashja' altered it and made it in praise of
Da'bal al-Khuza'i said: "When the news of the death of al-Reza (A.S.)
reached me, I was at Qum and I recited one my poems; some of its verses
I see the Umayyads excused if they were to kill,
But I see no reason why the Abbasides should at will;
Sons of Harb, Marwan and their breed
Banu Ma'eet, grudge and hate is their creed.
People whom you had to fight in early days
Of Islam to bring them to His ways.
When they became in charge and did rule,
They reverted to Kufr and left the usool.
Head towards Toos, to the grave site
Of the pure one, of the faith that is right,
If you ever wish to remember Islam like me,
Pristine, Islam of Muhammad and Ali.
Two graves in Toos: one for the best of all,
And the worst man people will ever recall.
No good will reach the villain who is lying nigh
In grave to one whose virtues reach the sky,
Nor will the pure suffer any harm
When near the soul that will never calm.
No indeed! Every soul shall reap what it did earn
So take what you will, or leave it to burn!"
Da'bal composed many eulogies about Imam al-Reza (A.S.), using his
poetry as a vehicle to disseminate the mission in whose principles he
strongly believed which were: to attract the nation's attention to the
injustice done to the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) and to the transgression upon
their rights, to the corruption of self-imposed government systems which
went beyond all reasonable limits in their iniquity and despotism.
Da'bal is considered the greatest poet of that time and the most
articulate in defending his beliefs and the principles in which he
believed. In his poetry, he provides us with an honest picture of the
reality of the oppressive government system which was followed by the
Abbaside dynasty then, and of the tragedies the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)
underwent because of their oppression.
Among others who eulogized the Imam (A.S.) was Ali ibn Abu Abdullah al-Khawwafi
May God's Grace water thee, O land of Toos!
What treasures has your land down deep?!
In the world your lands are called good
Made good by one in Sanabad asleep,
A man whose murder was hard on Islam
A man wrapped and drenched in God's mercy.
O the grave of his! In thee are clemency,
Knowledge, purity, and glory abound.
O envied grave! Angels do thee guard!
Abu Firas al-Hamadani said:
Sinned and killed al-Reza (A.S.) and were not kind,
Men whose hatred of him made them blind.
First pleased then distressed for eternity
A band that perished after its safety.
No allegiance, kinship, or mercy did indeed
Stop the rogues from committing the foul deed.
What the poet mentions here is nothing but the bitter truth about the
tragedy which was represented in the regency and the stance taken by the
same ones who arranged it, for they were happy with it when they first
nominated him as the successor to the caliph, the last step towards
caliphate which, according to the Divine Will, was the natural right of
Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.), but they became distressed when the rogues
deliberately assassinated the Imam (A.S.) despite their oath of
allegiance to him and despite the assurances, the promises, and the
sacred oaths they had sworn...
There are many eulogies in which the poets mentioned the tragedy the
Imam (A.S.) lived due to the oppression of the caliphs of his time
suffices us what we have quoted of them because to elaborate means to
unnecessarily prolong the discussion.
133 Tabari, Vol. 8, p. 558, "Events of the Year 203 A.H."
134 Ibn Khaldun, Vol. 3, p. 250
135 Uyoon Akhbar al-Reza, Vol. 2, p. 242
136 Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, p. 380
137 Al-Irshad, p. 297. A similar narrative is mentioned in Maqatil al-Talibiyyin,
138 Uyoon Akhbar al-Reza, Vol. 1, p. 18
139 Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, p. 378
140 Ibid., p. 380
141 Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, pp. 378-380